There are few publicly available details regarding the history and earlier organization of the CPS, which was formerly known as the Beltran Leyva Organization (BLO). The cartel’s leadership was comprised of five brothers—the top lieutenants—and the organization is based out of Sinaloa state. The CPS used to maintain operations on both Mexican coasts and its northern and southern borders, which moved significant quantities of cocaine into the US.
Until 2008, the then-BLO formed part of the Sinaloa Federation, for which it controlled access to the US border in Sonora state. In January 2008, Alfredo “El Mochomo” Beltran Leyva was arrested by the Mexican army. There is speculation that the intelligence leading to his arrest came from Sinaloa leader Joaquin “El Chapo” Guzmán Loera, and that the death of Edgar Guzmán Beltrán, Guzman Loera’s son, in May 2008 was retribution for the arrest. Alfredo commanded two groups of hitmen for the BLO, and was allegedly in charge of transporting drugs, bribing officials, and laundering money for the Federation at the time.
Mexican and US officials confirmed the split between the BLO and Sinaloa cartel in mid-May 2008. After the split, it formed an alliance with Los Zetas in order to move cocaine from Guatemala into Mexico, and then on into the US. This relationship between the two organizations continues today, and allows each to more firmly do battle against the rival Sinaloa Federation.
One of the biggest weapons in the BLO's arsenal was its intelligence apparatus, widely considered to be the best among Mexico's DTOs. The BLO successfully infiltrated the upper levels of the Mexican government, as well as US diplomatic establishments.
The BLO became one of the most powerful DTOs in Mexico in 2008-2009, capable of smuggling narcotics, battling rivals, and demonstrating a willingness to order the assassination of high-ranking government officials. However, it suffered a serious setback in December 2009 when Arturo Beltrán Leyva, Alfredo's brother and one of the DTO's top bosses, was killed by Mexican navy commandos in a raid. The Mexican government has said it ascertained Arturo's location through the use of good intelligence and diligent police work, but there are many who believe El Chapo tipped off the commandos to his location in order to eliminate a competitor.
Héctor, Arturo's brother, was the natural selection to fill the power vacuum left by Arturo. In 2010, the BLO underwent a split, between Hector's main faction and one run by Edgar "La Barbie" Valdez Villarreal, the head of the DTOs enforcement group. Héctor decided to rename his faction and the old BLO became the new CPS, although it's also known as "El H" and "La Empresa." Héctor also still maintains a friendship with his old allies Los Zetas, and is using this alliance to do battle against LFM and the Federation in Guerrero state.
La Barbie, meanwhile, was arrested in late 2010 by Mexican authorities, and his faction of the former BLO is assumed to be almost completely disintegrated. Based on the fact his capture by Mexican authorities was completely uneventful, the current assumption is that he made a deal to turn himself in and receive favorable treatment in exchange for providing intelligence on his rivals. In November 2010, the Mexican government agreed to extradite La Barbie to the US.
(Chart below by Strategic Forecasting)